The use of subscleral Cyclosporine implants in preventing equine recurrent uveitis : a literature review and case study of 10 horses with equine recurrent uveitis
Equine recurrent uveitis is a panuveitis with inflammation in the iris, ciliary body, and choroid, although the ciliary body and non pigmented ciliary epithelium are affected primarily and most severely. It is the leading cause of blindness in horses, and is capable of causing huge economic losses in the equine industry. The exact etiology is still up for debate, but some of the most promising theories point to; 1) Leptospira induced, either by shared Leptospiral and ocular antigens or altered immune function, or 2) immune mediated disease (as CRALBP and IRBP antigens are both capable of producing a recurrent uveitis in horses). It has also been reported that there is a possible genetic connection, and that horses displaying the ELA-A9 haplotype are more prone to ERU, and those horses without it cannot develop the disease. Because the ocular inflammatory response appears to be T cell mediated, and because CsA acts to decrease responsiveness to T cells to inflammatory stimuli, sustained release CsA drug delivery devices may be an important tool for the long term control of ERU.