Title:A terheléses rhabdomyolysis jellegzetességei egy székelyföldi régióban: esetismertetések
Kósa, Csaba Attila
SUMMARY Background: Exertional myopathies with rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a syndrome that damages the muscle tissue in horses and can be a devastating problem among working equidae. Beyond a highly probable hereditary factor, there does not seem to be a single cause that triggers ER in horses. Among these factors we can mention: the overfeeding of non-structural carbohydrates, poor conditioning or fitness, sudden increase of workload, electrolyte or mineral imbalances, deficiency in selenium or vitamin E, or imbalance of certain hormones. In Transylvania there is a certain geographical area of relatively high altitude where the prevalence of exertional rhabdomyolysis is high compared to the prevalence in the neighbouring regions. Objectives: In our manuscript while demonstrating typical cases, we examine all possible causes and contributing factors which can lead to the high prevalence of the condition, we also describe the pathophysiology of the disease and critically evaluate the locally applied treatment methods. Materials and Methods: We describe 5 cases of equine rhabdomyolysis by presenting the results of feed analysis, physical examination, blood and urine laboratory measurements, genetic tests and histopathology of muscle biopsy samples. We follow the clinical courses and treatment responses. Results and Discussion: In 4 of the 5 cases genetic background of rhabdomyolysis was proved by genetic testing for equine polysaccharide storage myopathy type 1 (PSSM1). Based on the feed analysis, the daily ration of these horses is deficient in essential amino acids, selenium, vitamin E, and some minerals and electrolytes. A sudden increase in workload demands high amount of well structured glycogen in the muscles, a perfect electrolyte balance and high antioxidative capacity, all of which are deficient in our cases. To prevent occurrence of further cases, PSSM1 positive horses should not be used for sudden heavy anaerobic exercise and it is advised to test any horse for the mutation before purchase. To avoid any muscular disorder, a well-balanced vitamin and mineral supplemented daily ration should be fed.