Title:A T-2 toxin hatásai az állati szervezetre, különös tekintettel a baromfira - Irodalmi összefoglaló
SUMMARY In the present literature review, the authors discuss the various general and specific effects of the T-2 toxin on animal health, focusing on poultry. T-2 toxin is one of the most toxic trichothecene mycotoxin produced by various Fusariumspecies. These are destructive pathogens on cereal crops and other commodities and produce the toxins before and immediately after harvesting. Although most of the bird species are quite resistant to the various mycotoxins, the issue of T-2 toxin contamination has a significant and remarkable importance in the poultry farming and production worldwide. The main targets of the toxin are the rapidly proliferating and differentiating cells and tissues with a high protein turnover, including the small intestines, the liver and immune cells. The toxic effects exerted by T-2 toxin include the inhibition of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis and it can affect the production of immunoglobulins or the humoral immunity as well. These effects can simply lead to immunosuppression, consequently the animals will be highly susceptible to infections caused by facultative pathogens. T-2 toxin furthermore generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) that induce lipid peroxidation which in turn leads to changes in membrane integrity, cellular redox signaling and the antioxidant status of the cells. The detection of the problem can be really difficult, since in numerous cases we can talk about subacute exposure for a longer time. It can affect the productivity of the animals in a negative way, but it does not lead to specific and well recognizable symptoms. As genotoxic and cytotoxic effects indicate that T-2 toxin is highly toxic on animal health, and as it is widespread in cereals and food, profound research of its toxic potential in animals is necessary in the future.