Title:Különleges laborállatok, kísérleti modellek Irodalmi összefoglaló
Fekete, Sándor György
SUMMARY In this study the authors overview those peculiar experimental models, which have a more and more important role in the replacement of higher vertebrates, because according to the concept of animal model, it is enough to have one important common characteristic with the target. Daphnia pulex is a sensitive ecotoxicological model. The fruit fly is a classical model of the genetics. The meal worm, the larva of Tenebrio molitor (Fig. 1) can be used for the evaluation of proteins’ nutritional value. The apoptosis and the RNA interference have been shown in Caenorhabditis elegans and the role of telomerase in the ageing was studied. By means of the Nippostrongylus brasiliensis the parasite-induced Th2 answer can be investigated. The slug (Fig. 2) mucous production is reliable indi cator of the local irritation of compounds. The 63/2010. EU directive extended the protection for the cephalopods (Fig. 3), because they have pain feeling. They are preferred models of sight, neurobiology and teaching. They are appropri ate for studying the learning and memory processes, too. The development of the transparent zebrafish larvae continues out of the mother’s body, therefore the embryotoxicity and teratogenicity can be tested. The axolotl (Fig. 4) is an important subject of the experiments on organ regeneration. Their larvae show neoteny. By the contractions of the inner laryngeal muscles the Xenopus lae vis is able to a sex-specific vocalisation. The reproduction of the armadillo (Fig. 5) is characterized by polyembryony. It is a satisfactory model of the human leprosy (Hansen-disease). The naked mole-rats (Fig. 6.) are eusocial animals. Their life span is extremely long. They are resistant to tumour formation. They have an important hyaluronic acid tool, which, in turn, keeps the cells far from each other. The failure percentage in the protein synthesis is very low. Their skin hardly feels pain because of the absence of substance P.