Title:Szagok, feromonok, kairomonok és interomonok az állatok életében - Irodalmi összefoglaló
Tóth, Ibolya Mária
Fekete, Sándor György
SUMMARY The environmental smells influence the behaviour and occasionally the epigenetics of mammals. The epigenetic factors are regulated independently from the base sequence of the DNA and by means of the germ lines, the environment-in-duced phenotypic changes can be inherited. According to the characteristics of the smell substances a chemical map is developed in the olfactory bulb. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) has an important role in the pheromone-transfered communication. The VNO is expressing specific major histocompatibility genes, too. In horses and felidae a specific behaviour form, the Flehmen-reaction facilitates pheromone molecules to get the VNO. The intraspecific communication is attained by means of the pheromones, especially in the social and sexual relations. The kairomones are functioning in the communication between species. The interomones are smell compounds influencing the behaviour or physiology of other species, with or without a positive or negative effect for the releaser. Some interomes may decrease the stress of other species, having a significance of animal welfare. The HEPA-filter of rodents' cages does not isolate smells. In rat experiment the smell substance of the fox faeces (2,4,5-trime-thyl-tiol=TMT) caused an expressed freezing reaction. The TMT increased the blood ACTH and corticosterone level in rats. In the behaviour of mice, the concentrated, synthetic TMT had only a repellent effect, nevertheless the TMT in fox faeces proved as a real predator stimulus. The irritative smells like toluol induced fear or aversive behaviour. Based on the inherited fear against the smells, ethological animal models can be outlined and environmentally safe dog-cat relaxant, as well as rodent repellent can be developed.