Title:A vörös húsok és húskészítmények feldolgozása, előállítása, ill. otthoni sütése, főzése során keletkező rákkeltő anyagok Irodalmi összefoglaló
Summary The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified the red meat as probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) and the processed meat as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), because their processing and home cooking may generate genotoxic carcinogens. In the present review the authors first outline the classification of the carcinogenic agents as well as the basics of their risk assessment, and then highlight the carcinogenic compounds that may be generated in association with the red and processed meats. Among these agents, first the formation of nitrosamines and other N-nitroso compounds are discussed including the possible catalytic effect of haem iron in it, followed by the mechanisms of their carcinogenicity and the risk of their presence in the processed meats. In the following, the significance of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the heterocyclic aromatic amines are highlighted according to the same aspects, emphasising the importance of the cooking methods in their formation, and then the risk minimising strategies in association with the consumption of red and processed meats are summarised. It is concluded that the formation of carcinogenic compounds in association with the processing and home cooking of red meat and meat products can be significantly decreased by reduction in exposure to nitrite during processing including the concurrent use of antioxidants and to high-temperature and direct contact with the heating surface or the flame during cooking. The manifestation of the carcinogenic hazard due to high consumption of red and processed meat can be significantly reduced by healthy, balanced eating and diets including also considerable amounts of fresh vegetables, fruits and cereals that are rich in natural antioxidants.