Title:A Literature Review Regarding The Epidemiology of Leptospirosis and its Impact on Cattle Herds in Ireland
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochetal disease caused by the bacteria of genus Leptospirae. Leptospirosis is the most common zoonosis worldwide and can have devastating impacts on both animals and humans. It has a substantial influence on the farming industry via agalctia and reproductive wastage in cows. Once thought to be primarily an occupational disease of humans, recreational users are now thought to be in great risk of contacting the disease. Leptospirosis caused by Leptospira Hardjo is an endemic disease in Irish cattle herds and has been shown to affect both Irish suckler herds and dairy herds. Animals not vaccinated are at risk of abortion and/or decreased rates of conception. There is limited data available for the impact of Leptospirosis on Irish cattle herds and thus more research is needed into its significance. This review aims to explain the potential impact of Leptospirosis, the challenges facing its diagnosis and recommendations on preventing it affecting cattle herds both nationally and globally.