Title:Insects as food and feed: A literature review
Muscat, Nicole Marie
This literature review tackled the broad, primitive subject that is insects as food and feed. First, a detailed comparison was made between insects and conventional protein sources, studying the environmental opportunities of the mass production of insects. Feed conversion ratios, edibility, water use, land use, energy use and amount of greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions produced for each conventional protein source (beef, pork, chicken and soybean) and for insects were discussed. Insects were seen to be the superior protein source when it comes to sustainability. An extra environmental benefit for the mass production of insects was also pointed out; that insects are able to aid in the waste management and recycling, a global problem of outmost importance. Complementing the benefits, the environmental hurdles for insects as food and feed were also discussed. The only two drawbacks are biosecurity and the fact that some insects harbour antimicrobial resistance genes. It is safe to say that when it comes to insects, the environmental benefits outweigh the downfalls. This study then continues to describe the technologies of insect farming and processing, with special regards to the EU legislation, animal welfare and farming insects at home. The mass production lifecycles of the Yellow Mealworm, the House Cricket and the Black Soldier Fly were compared.