Postpartum anoestrus in dairy cows
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Fertility in dairy cows has declined due to the increased milk yield although veterinary medicine has been improved throughout ages. In order to be able to detect fertility problems, the normal oestrus cycle of cattle must be studied, and therefore, any abnormalities present are identified. Ovarian cyclicity is the outermost effect on fertility and it has to be maintained. Achieving normal oestrus cycles postpartum positively affects the reproductive performance of the herd or individuals. Postpartum anoestrus is better to be prevented rather than treated; therefore, the underlying causes of this abnormal condition should be identified and treated accordingly. Negative energy balance, overconditioning as well as postpartum uterine diseases lead to anoestrus. Despite the negligible effects of oestrus synchronisation protocols that are used in order to reach normal cyclicity postpartum, it is interestingly important to focus on the good management of the herd. During the periparturient period metabolic diseases must be prevented and the dry matter intake postpartum must be high in order to reach an adequate reproductive efficiency. Postpartum anoestrus must not be confused with the repeat-breeder cow syndrome, as it is a similar condition. Even though it is not a true anoestrus, it leads to the same consequences. From the whole study and research around the postpartum anoestrus in dairy cows further knowledge is in need to be obtained; especially in the anovulatory cows, that show lower percentages of successful breeding post-treatment than the ovulatory cows. In this respect, such conditions lead to extended calving to breeding intervals; thus decreasing the profitability of the herd.