Prevalence of CANV infections of bearded dragon populations in Hungary : A review and own research study
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Although the CANV infection of reptiles is known for more than two decades, the disease is still not completely understood and requires further research. For a better understanding of the way of infection and adequate treatment, further investigations must be done. The Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii, a keratinophilic fungus, seems to be contagious and causes often fatal dermatomycosis in many reptile species (Bowman et al., 2007). The Chrysosporium spp. related to Nannizziopsis vriesii can also cause infection in immunocompromised humans, which are for example infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (Stebbins et al., 2004; Brandt et al., 2005; Steininger et al., 2005). Indoor and outdoor kept animals, as well as animals of any age and sex can get infected with CANV; however reptiles which are kept under inadequate general conditions seem to be more predisposed to the disease and to develop a fungal dermatitis caused by CANV (Johnson et al., 2011). The clinical signs can vary from focal swellings up to deep ulcerative necrosis of affected skin parts. The predilection sights seem to be the maxillary region, legs and tail as well as the ventral surface of the body, including the cloaca. The histological examination of lesions reveals granulomatous dermatitis with intralesional hyphae. Numerous treatment strategies are applied but the overall success rate is still unsatisfactory. Nevertheless the oral application of Voriconazole as antifungal agent appears to be a good drug of choice and the treatment must be continued, probably over several weeks, until the complete clearance of the fungi.