Génmegőrzés az állattenyésztésben
Vörös, Balázs Zoltán
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Many mammal and poultry species have become endangered or reached the edge of extinction. Due to the rapid increase of the population large quantities of food products have to be produced. This may only be achieved by recorder animals capable of outstanding performance.The species which cannot meet these breeding requirements may easily loose their importance. This leads to the dramatic decrease of the animal genetic reserves of the world, and lead to irreversible losses in the biological diversity of animals. Hungary was one of the first countries to realise the significance of the genetic conservation and that of saving endangered species. There are two methods for the maintenance of the genetic reserves: ex situ and in situ genetic preservation. The safe and longterm maintenance of genetic diversity requires the simultaneous application of the two methods. In my thesis I have examined the role of assisted reproduction techniques in the genetic conservation of different species. These biotechnological methods have become indispensable in modern animal breeding and reproduction. Insemination, independent of time and space have become possible by means of these methods. It is possible to produce much more offsprings of hight producing animals representing great genetic value, than would be possible in natural circumstances. They plan an important role in the depositing and maintenance of genetic material in gene banks of endemic and endangered species for the future. I have dealt with the methods of obtaining genetic material in detail, with the pros and cons of deepfreezing, with the really rich and manyfold methods of assisted reproduction by means of which artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization can be performed. I have presented the importance of the preparation of sex-determined sperm, the favourable applications of techniques for the improvement of the inseminating capacity of sperm, and those of micromanipulation. As a conclusion, I dealt with the use of assisted reproduction techniques in endemic, threatened domestic animal species.